Wed

07

May

2014

Notable Australians - Boxer Lionel Rose

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Thu

01

May

2014

Fitch Affirms Los Angeles County Public Works Fin Auth, CA's Park Bonds at 'AAA'; Outlook Stable

The average annual assessment, presently with $19.27 for a single family home, will be minimal when in comparison to property value. the Los Angeles as well as long Beach ports mixed hold the highest throughput regarding U.S. PLEASE READ THESE LIMITATIONS AND DISCLAIMERS BY FOLLOWING THIS LINK: HTTP://FITCHRATINGS.COM/UNDERSTANDINGCREDITRATINGS. Officials stated that the district is not obligated to be able to spend down reserves prior for the expiration in the district. Further, coverage levels are required to stay stable in future years as well.

DIVERSE AND BROAD ECONOMY: The Particular district is coterminous with the county. Fitch views the actual significant stability in the revenue stream being an offset towards the below-average ABT. The Actual region known regarding its significant commercial along with cultural centers. Through state law, zero lower than 80% and also no much more than 85% of the assessment is restricted with regard to money projects, such as financial debt service.. The Particular county's socioeconomic characteristics are usually below-average relative to the state as well as on par with the nation.

http://www.fitchratings.com/creditdesk/reports/report_frame.cfm?rpt_id=686015

Assessment revenue, which can easily be collected along with general property taxes, features a parity lien around the property. Extremely high reserves increase the district's capacity for pay-as-you-go capital funding.

STABLE REVENUE STREAM

The Score Outlook is Stable.

Additional Disclosure

DIMINISHED DEBT SERVICE COVERAGE: Fitch would view negatively the issuance involving further debt plus a resulting decline indebted support coverage.

The district will be charged with building, maintaining, and also improving beaches, parks, recreational facilities, as well as open spaces. Management represented which they truly do not necessarily intend to become able to issue any extra debt. The Particular district's financial operations are reported separately from the county, and the district had been proven like a distinct entity below the particular voter-approved propositions.

Additional information is available from 'www.fitchratings.com'.

Applicable Criteria along with Associated Research:

NEW YORK--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Fitch Ratings requires the particular following ranking action on Los Angeles County Public Functions Financing Authority, CA (the authority) issued in behalf with the Los Angeles County Regional Park as well as open Area District, CA (the district):

Applicable Criteria and related Research:

Debt services coverage is protected simply by yet another bonds test (ABT) in which requires pledged assessments within the nearly all latest fiscal year cover maximum annual financial debt service including your proposed issue 1.15x. Fitch believes this actually is reasonable because the district has sizable reserves readily accessible for long term acquisitions as well as improvements. Assessments tend to be calculated as a set amount for each parcel along with do not necessarily vary with assessed valuation fluctuations. The Actual district can be coterminous with the county and just about all sorts of properties except large, vacant land are generally assessed. Almost All associated with the overall fund stability will be restricted.

The district's overall credit card debt amounts remain reasonable at $3,812 per capita along with 3.5% regarding assessed value, consisting primarily involving overlapping debt. ports.

STRONG FINANCIAL OPERATIONS



The district generated surpluses regarding at least all of the past seven audited fiscal years. The Particular district will not intend in order to issue extra debt.

The district's economic operations are usually strong, marked simply by sizable liquid reserves as well as versatile investing needs. Management does not anticipate the notable coverage decline inside fiscal 2017 when the first assessment features expired as well as annual credit card debt services provides decreased. This monetary flexibility, along with the relative certainty of the district's revenue, enhances bondholder protections.

Tax-Supported rating Criteria

AFFORDABLE, STABLE ASSESSMENT LEVELS: benefit assessments are generally calculated as a really modest flat charge as well as immune in order to assessed worth fluctuations. 14, 2012).

STRONG FINANCIAL PROFILE: Significant operating margins and expenditure versatility underscore a solid financial position. Your diversity along with maturity in the county's vast tax base assists offset its evident cyclical vulnerability as well as persistently above-average unemployment.



The district will start deficit spending to reduce its sizable reserves at a range of point within the future. local Government Tax-Supported Score Criteria' (Aug. Fitch views your district's commitment never to issue any other financial debt as key point in the high rating.

VOTER-APPROVED DISTRICT DISTINCT FROM COUNTY

The county's economy can be larger than that of 45 states and almost all sorts of but 19 countries. FITCH'S CODE OF CONDUCT, CONFIDENTIALITY, CONFLICTS OF INTEREST, AFFILIATE FIREWALL, COMPLIANCE AND OTHER RELEVANT POLICIES AND PROCEDURES ARE ALSO AVAILABLE FROM THE 'CODE OF CONDUCT' SECTION OF THIS SITE. Neighborhood Government Tax-Supported rating Criteria

http://www.fitchratings.com/creditdesk/reports/report_frame.cfm?rpt_id=685314

Pledged revenue, calculated from 80% involving total current yr collections, provides provided steady along with steady credit card debt services coverage of 1.66x in order to 1.72x from fiscals 2008 - 2013. average annual spending coming from fiscals 2009-2013 had been $40.1 million compared to always be able to average income regarding $84.1 million. FITCH MAY HAVE PROVIDED ANOTHER PERMISSIBLE SERVICE TO THE RATED ENTITY OR ITS RELATED THIRD PARTIES. Yet Fitch doesn't view your restrictions like a credit score negative given that they tend to be with regard to features linked to the district's core mission.

LEGALLY SEPARATE ENTITY: Fitch believes the voter-established district is actually sufficiently distinct and separate from your county the district rating isn't limited by the county's.

SECURITY

Economic indicators demonstrate the recession's impact on the county, specially the somewhat substantial unemployment charge regarding 8.8% within December 2013 (down coming from 10.2% a year prior). Fitch views the type associated with park as well as open room tasks as incorporating significant versatility to keep paying within revenue as well as reserve levels. IN ADDITION, RATING DEFINITIONS AND THE TERMS OF USE OF SUCH RATINGS ARE AVAILABLE ON THE AGENCY'S PUBLIC WEBSITE 'WWW.FITCHRATINGS.COM'. The Actual district contracts its employees from the county and can not have just about any immediate pension or any kind of other post-employment advantage requirements.

In supplement to the resources of knowledge identified inside Fitch's Tax-Supported rating Criteria, this motion has been additionally informed through information from Creditscope, College Economic Associates, S&P/Case-Shiller House Cost Index, IHS Global Insight, and in addition the National Association of Realtors.

Benefit assessment income could improve somewhat if vacant territory parcels are generally developed or designated with regard to residential use or in case a parcel can be sub-divided. That generates 28% in the state's economic output and also 3.5% in the nation's gross product. Fitch believes in which the low assessment quantity in accordance with house values provides continued incentive pertaining to property owners to produce annual payments.

SOUND DEBT SERVICE COVERAGE: debt service coverage remains sound taking directly into thought the predictability and stability regarding advantage assessment revenue. Paying has remained well under collected assessments since of a lengthy method pertaining to project planning, acquisition, and completion.

SOUND DEBT SERVICE COVERAGE

KEY RATING DRIVERS

Fitch believes your voter-established district is actually sufficiently distinct as well as separate in the county the district ranking just isn't restricted by the county's implied unlimited tax general obligation score associated with 'AA-'; stable Outlook. Following the first assessment expires within fiscal 2016, the average advantage assessment is projected in order to decline to $6.76. Management stated the change can be no less than partly credited in order to banks paying back taxes next completed foreclosure proceedings, indicating that will the low delinquency charge will definitely not reflect an improving economy.

The bonds are generally secured by simply payments made by the district towards the authority. 14, 2012);

RATING SENSITIVITIES

--$116.9 million refunding revenue bonds, series 2005A along with 2007A affirmed with 'AAA'.

The district ended fiscal 2013 using a total fund balance associated with $330 million, add up to a new markedly substantial 460% involving spending. The Particular district's consultant provides projected that the district will have $175 million throughout unspent grant funds once the benefit assessment sunsets.

CREDIT PROFILE

--'U.S. DETAILS OF THIS SERVICE FOR RATINGS FOR WHICH THE LEAD ANALYST IS BASED IN AN EU-REGISTERED ENTITY CAN BE FOUND ON THE ENTITY SUMMARY PAGE FOR THIS ISSUER ON THE FITCH WEBSITE.

U.S. a 2nd voter-approved proposition ended up being passed in 1996 that levied yet another benefit assessment based about the identical criteria as the first proposition. The idea can in addition be the particular largest manufacturing center and customs district inside the nation. PUBLISHED RATINGS, CRITERIA AND METHODOLOGIES ARE AVAILABLE FROM THIS SITE AT ALL TIMES. Your payments really are a 1st lien on the 80% - 85% discuss associated with unique advantage assessments, levied upon practically all properties within the Los Angeles County, CA (the county), that are limited regarding richesse use.

MODERATE DEBT LEVELS

The district ended up being established with a voter-approved proposition within 1992 which levied the flat rate advantage assessment depending on property use along with size. Residential property proprietors spend 71.6% regarding total advantage assessments, which shows strong diversity.

POWERFUL ECONOMIC ENGINE

--'Tax-Supported Ranking Criteria' (Aug. each assessment will remain in location for 22 a prolonged time following the first 12 months it absolutely was levied, using the initial assessment expiring throughout fiscal 2016 and also the second within fiscal 2020.

ALL FITCH CREDIT RATINGS ARE SUBJECT TO CERTAIN LIMITATIONS AND DISCLAIMERS. Your incentive to become able to spend will be higher considering that assessments as well as property taxes tend to be collected simultaneously as well as use a parity lien around the property.

Delinquency prices possess improved through a higher involving 4.4% within fiscal 2008 to some latest reduced regarding 2.5% within fiscal 2013
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Tue

29

Apr

2014

The Common Welfare in Early America

The Act made it mandatory for each and also every parish or perhaps township to pay any property tax pertaining to relief with the poor.





From 1610-1660, in the Dutch colony regarding New Netherland, (New York) your public financed poor relief was administered by means of the particular Dutch Reformed Church, which employed 2 individuals for you to visit the actual sick.






Founders as well as the Almshouse
Modern citizens could find the thought of auctioning poor kids far from their particular family members to become rather heartless, however the custom associated with youngsters coming into indentured servitude had been rather common within England and many poor English kids ended up sent to the colonies as indentured servants. These kinds of had been possibly the first social workers. Inside 1620 your Act of Settlement required recipients associated with public assistance to become residents of the town which in turn had been helping them.
Public assistance within Colonies
British Poor Laws. Laws and procedures varied via colony to colony and also as the auctioning of poor children faded via New England by the late 1820s, the practice continued inside Arkansas until 1903.

Always a new Welfare State
Poor Relief







According to some History associated with Middletown, (CT) in 1768 James Stevenson billed the actual city with regard to compensation with regard to "keeping the particular Previous Blind Squaw...thirteen weeks..." This specific elderly Native American woman named Tyke, the particular widow of your Wangunk chief, had zero loved ones left to care with regard to her, therefore any nearby citizen does therefore and billed your town for the service, apparently a new typical practice.
Public support in behalf associated with poorer citizens not merely precedes the New Deal, it precedes your constitution and continues in order to be part of America since before it absolutely was referred to as America.
As the actual founders debated independence, the manager of an almshouse eight blocks away wrote inside his record that will "of the actual 147 Men, 178 women, and 85 children [admitted to the almshouse throughout the previous year] most of which [are] naked, helpless along with emaciated using Poverty and Disease for you to this kind of Degree, which a few have got died inside a few days following their own Admission," according to the Philadelphia Gazette, Could 29, 1776.
The colonists were, following all, British plus they brought along with all of them your Elizabethan Poor Law associated with 1601, based on "Social Insurance and Public Assistance" via Historical Figures of the United States. That had been always assumed which they really should not be able to starve or perhaps freeze to death as well as assumed which citizens had a duty for you to protect them.

Relief included tax-financed "outdoor relief," by which the actual recipient had been assisted although remaining in the community, and "indoor relief" that provided shelter in an almshouse. Therefore, opponents argue, we must return for the founding fathers ideals of "every man regarding him self," and "pull yourself up simply by your own boot straps." the issue with this narrative can be that's a total lie.

Town Pays pertaining to Indigent

Indentured Children


While methods regarding caring for that poor, such as a great many other things, varied greatly coming from colony to become able to colony, there in simply no way would become a occasion once the poor had been merely overlooked by simply citizens or governing authorities. they were freed with age 21.




The current narrative regarding public assistance throughout America treats the particular issue want it is an un-American innovation, foisted on an unsuspecting public through the New Deal. "The colony of Rhode island, for instance, would adopt the Elizabethan Poor Law together with hardly a new revision," according towards the report. Poor children had been apprenticed for you to farmers via auctioning and in addition the able-bodied poor performed construction about the poorhouses
0 Comments

Sat

26

Apr

2014

N.H. property taxes among highest in U.S.

Census info pertaining to 2005 through 2007, the particular median property-tax paid out within Rockingham County had been $4,950. Another Granite State counties broke down this way:



Hillsborough County ranked 31st, having an average property tax of $4,583, then Merrimack County ($4,371, 36th), Stratford County ($3,917, 52nd), Cheshire County ($3,814, 60th), Grafton County ($3,357, 94th), Sullivan County ($3,250, 102nd), Belknap County ($3,176, 110th), Coos County ($2,436, 234) as well as Carroll County ($2,306, 256th).


* Merrimack County--1.8 percent using average values $239,700; 119th


No part want to know , could be reproduced without having the actual express written permission from the copyright holder.
* Stratford County--1.7 % with typical values $225,200; 152nd
Copyright 2009 Gale, Cengage Learning. Just About All legal rights reserved.
* Carroll County--I % with typical values $234,600; 688th

New Hampshire's Cheshire County had the state's highest property taxes within relation to median income, with taxes involving 6.2 percent typically incomes involving $61,900, ranked nationally with 22nd.





* Hillsborough County--1.7 percent with typical values $276,300; 190th

COPYRIGHT 2009 business Publications, Inc.










The nation's highest property-tax bills had been in New York's Westchester County, with typical property taxes regarding $7,908.

* Sullivan County--1.9 percent together with average values $167,600; 73rd
* Rockingham County--1.5 percent together with typical values $321,500; 255th
The report additionally looked at property taxes as a percentage of median house value.

In New Hampshire, Coos County residents paid probably the actual most inside property taxes as becoming a percent associated with median house values, along with taxes with 2.1 percent regarding median home values of $117,900, for a national rank regarding 52. the groundwork employed up to be able to date info from your Census' "American Neighborhood Survey" regarding places along with populations higher compared to 20,000, ranking communities in greater than 1,800 counties nationwide.
* Cheshire County--2.0 % along with average values $188,700; 55th
* Grafton County--1.7 percent using typical values $203,200; 196th
. Residents inside Vernon Parish throughout Louisiana compensated your least, with an typical property tax involving $115.
* Belknap County--1.4 percent together with typical values $226,600; 344th
A national nonprofit tax organization offers ranked New Hampshire's Rockingham County as having the 21st highest median property-tax rate inside the country.
According to figures launched by the Tax Basis according to U.S
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